In this episode we explore the life and times of Zhuge Liang (181-234 AD). He’s a very good example of a well-known name from Chinese history that many have heard of but aren’t quite sure why. He lived during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms periods. Zhuge Liang is mostly remembered for his cleverness and many consider him right up there with Sunzi (Sun Tzu) as far as the works of strategy and military science he left behind.
TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE
Luo Guanzhong 罗贯中 Author of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms
xifan 稀饭 thin rice gruel
ershisishi 二十四史 The Twenty-four Histories
Sanguo Zhi 三国志 The Record of the Three Kingdoms
Chen Shou 陈寿 Author of the Record of the Three Kingdoms
Shi Ji 史记 The Record of the Grand Historian (by Sima Qian)
Wei 魏国 The Kingdom of Wei in the north
Shu 蜀国 The Kingdom of Shu to the west
Wu 吴国 The Kingdom of Wu to the east
Sanguo Shidai 三国时代 The period of the Three Kingdoms
Zhang Jiao 张角 Rebel leader who led the Yellow Turbans
Shandong 山东 Shandong province
Yinan County 沂南县 County in southern Shandong
Linyi 临沂 County seas of Yinan
Jiangsu 江苏 Province in the east
Zhuge Xuan 诸葛玄 Uncle of Zhuge Liang
Emperor Ling 汉灵帝 Eastern Han Emperor 168-189
Dong Zhuo 董卓 warlord of Eastern Han, seized power, assasinated by Lü Bu
Lü Bu 吕布 Capricious general of the Eastern Han, murdered Dong Zhuo (and others)
Liu Biao 刘表 Jing Province governor, son of Han Jing Emperor, supported Liu Bei
Yuan Shao 袁绍 Warlord, Half brother to Yuan Shu, tried to overthrow Cao Cao
Yuan Shu 袁术 Tried to set himself up as emperor in 197, another general of the Eastern Han
Huang Zhu 黄柱 Shu Han politician
Sun Jian 孙坚 Eastern Wu warlord, father of Sun Quan and Sun Ce
Deng Ai 邓艾 One of Cao Cao’s generals
Sima Yi 司马懿 One of Cao Cao’s generals, remembered for stopping Zhuge Liang in the north and bring the grandfather of Sima Yan
Sun Ce 孙策 Warlord of Eastern Wu, brother of Sun Quan
Zhou Yu 周瑜 One of the heroes of the Battle of Red Cliffs, worked for Sun Quan
Guan Yu 关羽 See CHP episode no.81 for details, one of Liu Bei’s gang
Zhang Fei 张飞 One of Liu Bei’s gang
Cao Cao 曹操 The main guy up in the north who ran the Kingdom of Wei
Liu Bei 刘备 The main guy in the west who ran the Kingdom of Shu. Zhuge Liang worked for him.
Emperor Xian 汉献帝 Eastern Han Emperor, the last one, 189-220
Nanyang 南阳 Historic city in southern Henan
Wancheng 宛城 Ancient name for Nanyang
Henan 河南 Province in China where much of ancient Chinese history took place
Luoyang 洛阳 Capital of many dynasties, located in Henan
Bai River 白河 The river that runs through the center of Nanyang
Sima Hui 司马绘 Wise teacher in Nanyang, famous for being the one who helped arrange the intro of Liu Bei to Zhuge Liang
Shui Jing 水镜 Sima Hui’s pseudonym
chengyu 成语 slang
hao hao xiansheng 好好先生 someone who always sounds like he’s agreeing with you
Longzhong 隆中 Area of Nanyang where Zhuge Liang lived in seclusion
Wolong 卧龙 Crouching Dragon, Zhuge Liang’s other name
Huang Chengyan 黄承颜 Local scholar in Nanyang. Later became the father in law to Zhuge Liang
Huang Yueying 黄月英 Daughter of Huang Chengyan, wife of Zhuge Liang, famous for many things, being particularly unattractive was one of them.
Kongming 孔明 Zhuge Liang’s “style” or “courtesy” name.
Zi 字 Courtesy or style name
Liji 礼记 The Book of Rites from the Zhou Dynasty
Liu Bang 刘邦 Founder of the Han Dynasty, reigned as Han Gaozu
Longzhong Dui 隆中对 The Longzhong Plan (to create the Kingdom of Shu and to unify China under their banner)
Changban 长板之战 Site of a battle in 208 between Cao Cao and Liu Bei. Liu Bei lost.
Wuhan 武汉 Historic place in Hubei where the old Jing Province was.
Jingzhou 荆州 Jing Province, one of the ancient provinces of China, where Hunan-Hubei are mostly.
Yi 益州 One of the ancient provinces of China, where Sichuan is mostly.
Shu Han 蜀汉 The Kingdom of Shu, also called Shu Han
Jun 郡 A prefect. Also called a commandery. An ancient administrative level going back to the Zhou Dynasty
Cao Pi 曹丕 Son of Cao Cao, founder of Cao Wei and served as first emperor
Shu Han Zhaolie 蜀汉钊烈 Title of Liu Bei
Wu Xiang hou 武鄉侯 Marquis of Wu
Yunnan 云南 Province in the south
Cao Rui 曹叡 Successor to Cao Pi on throne in Cao Wei
Liu Shan 刘禅 Son of Liu Bei who succeeded his father as King of Shu Han
Wujing Zongyao 武警总要 Collection of the Most Important Military Techniques, written in 1044, first time gunpowder’s chemical makeup was revealed.
Sima Yan 司马炎 Grandson of Sima Yi, founded the Jin dynasty
Du Fu 杜甫 Considered the greatest or one of the greatest poets in Chinese literature. Lived during the Tang
Zhongwu hou 忠武侯 Loyal & Warlike Marquis
Zhuge Jin 诸葛巾 The kind of head dress that Zhuge Liang wore.
Sanshiliu Ji 三十六计 The Thirty-six Stratogems
muniu 木牛 The Wooden Ox (early transport vehicle, similar to a wheelbarrow it’s thought.
Mantou 馒头 Steamed bun
Man 蠻 Barbarian
Man 馒 Steamed bun
Baozi 包子 Steamed bun with some sort of filling
Meng Huo 孟获 Breakaway leader down in Yunnan who Zhuge Liang went down to subdue